enumerate at least 5 ways on how scientists record experimental results.?
please help! thanks!
i know the scientific method! iam asking how scientists record experimental results. anyway, thanks.
please! i need it tomorrow!
Scientists communicate among themselves using several types of writing, each with its own rules based on the writers’ purposes and the readers’ needs. Names for these types of writing may vary slightly depending on the instructor and the discipline, but some general rules are likely to be true. If you are unsure about what rules to follow, ask your instructor for a style sheet or a sample and pay careful attention to what you see there. Typical experiments involve three types of writing: raw observations on lab notebook data sheets; revised lab notebook entries; and formal reports, submitted as manuscripts to professional journals. When you have read to the end of this page, but before you try to write your article, consult “How to Write a Scientific Article” for a “cookbook” approach to what the most important sections must contain and how your reader will interact with them.
1) Lab Notebook
Scientists use lab notebooks as a written record of their experiments, their materials, and their results. Other researchers who are familiar with the subject being studied should be able to use the lab notebook to reconstruct the experiment for themselves. The revised lab notebook entry probably will contain a mix of sentences, short phrases, and numerical data drawn from “data records” entered earlier in the notebook. Brevity and clarity are much more important than your prose style. Use the lab notebook to sketch pictures of things relevant to your research like an unusual piece of equipment, a “flow-chart” of your experiment’s procedure, or something important which you see while conducting the experiment (changes of shape, color, size).
2) Data Records (part of the lab notebook)
While observing an experiment or collecting data in the field, scientists often record their observations in table format. Dated and well-organized data are an important part of a lab notebook because they hold your lab observations in a structured format that prepares you for later analysis. Data records contain only numbers and short phrases–don’t worry about writing complete sentences or paragraphs. Of course, the categories and labels on yours will be changed to suit the experiment you conduct.
3) Scientific Articles or Reports and Their Composing Processes
Scientists publish articles to tell colleagues around the world about their work. Because the audience is international, all lab reports follow a very strict format. Most reports contain seven sections in this order: Title, Abstract, Introduction, Methods and Materials, Results, Discussion, Literature Cited. Only certain kinds of information belong in each section of an article. An article is based on the lab notebook and data sheets, but it is written in complete sentences forming coherent paragraphs within each section. In research articles, the Materials and Methods section usually is written first, then Results, Discussion, Introduction, Abstract, and Literature Cited. See pages 2 and 3 for more help with the article format.
i need help with audit process flow:audit trail of all financial data.?
Compliane requires that all data changes be recorded in the history tables and that the auditing model employ a mechanism to audit any user on demand.Use a data model or a combination of auditing models to produce the following:Process flow diagram or flow chart of your auditing model,the data model of your auditing model and identification of all the components that will be involved in the auditing model.The models that i’m talking about are simple auditing model 1 or 2 and advanced auditing model. i’ve been trying to read to understand what is required but i have no clue. Somebody who has please assist me.Any suggestion is welcome
You have a challenging assignment that may be in an academic theoretical reality that does not connect well to the real world.
I am a computer guy.
I am not an auditor.
I have been called upon to do data forensics.
I don’t know models terminology. I just know how to get the job done.
For assurance that all data changes be in the history, there needs to be a level of computer security assurance (computer dept has power to delete & insert records, without going through standard channels, does anyone keep track of that?), know resolution of downage (You in middle of updating something, your PC locks up, what happens to the data?), and archiving (we do not keep the data forever, how do we know it is the oldest that is written off?).
To audit on demand what any user has done, well the history needs to include identification of user, work station address, time stamp (user leaves work area, someone else does transaction on their work station … User’s password gets learned by someone who signs on from some place the user not have access, use their name to do the transaction).
Then there needs to be an understanding of the limitations of the software used to access the records.
For example, it is not unusual to match up … Inventory reference #s associated with the changes … Ok what happens in the software if something being matched up is not there … Like maybe a purchase order got closed, purged, so the transaction refers to some control that aint there … Is that transaction also omitted from the inquiry?
If the audit team does not have a good understanding of the data base and software architecture being used by the company that they are auditing, then they have to rely on programs used by that company, without the ability to know about flaws or bugs in that software, that might cause people to not see the whole picture.
I can’t see that a flow chart is relevant here.
Flow charts are generally used when a person has a detailed understanding of a process, and some other people need to see a simiplified picture, or someone is designing a system, and this is used in a top down approach to help organize things.
A flow chart is not relevant to doing data forensics when you are trying to figure out what is going on, what did go on, you don’t know where the evidence will lead you.
We recently had an IRS audit.They wanted to know if I “changed the data” in a report delivered to the auditors.
Well I selected the data to go on the report.
I selected the arrangement of the data.
I made the columns line up nice.
I did various testing to make sure the report was accurate … In fact, more than 1/2 the time spent in preparing it was in detecting & fixing problems.
I did not mention that years ago I might have deleted some of the data upon which this report is based, because I just answering with respect to what I remember doing with the data in the last few days to get what was wanted for the IRS auditors.
After I passed it along, it occurrect to me that some of the vendor #s can get reassigned over time, so that when I linked the expense data to what vendor name that is, that’s the name for that # now being used, it might not be the name used years ago.
What is the current change in Earth’s magnetic poles?
Feb. 27, 2005 Scientists have been observing changes in the direction of earth’s magnetic field which took place recently as well as in the distant past. NASA’s website features a map showing the gradual northward migration of the north magnetic pole in the past century and a half. Since more than double the time interval has elapsed since the last reversal, compared to the time lapse between the previous two pole reversals, some believe we may be overdue for the next north-south flip. However, though the interval between reversals of the Earth’s magnetic field can be as short as 5,000 years, it can also be as long as 50 million years. There does not seem to be any logic or rule governing the planet’s behavior.
It is not only the direction but also the strength of this magnetic field that is a concern. In the time of dinosaurs, at an estimated 2.5 gauss, it was eighty percent stronger than it is now. The weakening of earth’s magnetism is one of the factors believed to be predictive of a pole reversal. That magnetic field reversals have occurred in the past is confirmed in the geological record. What is unclear is how precisely the transition occurs, and what happens to life forms extant at the time of this pole flip.
The disorderly-flip theory is supported by evidence from geology that in past reversals the decline was not total. Lava flows that solidified at Steen’s Mountain during a lengthy reversal process show that the magnetic poles wandered across the equator three times. Though strength of the field was reduced to about 20% of maximum, there is no record that it fell to zero gauss during that transitional period.
Tampa International Airport runway shut down due to magnetic pole shift
An airport in Tampa, Florida, has had to temporarily close its runways to keep up with Earth’s magnetic north pole, which is drifting toward Russia at a rate of 40 miles per year. Fox News reports that the international airport was forced to adjust the signs on its busiest runway Thursday because pilots depend on the magnetic fields to navigate. The runway will be closed until Jan. 13, and will re-open with new taxiway signs that indicate its new location on aviation charts, the Tampa Bay Tribune reports.
Paul Takemoto, a spokesman for the FAA, says the Earth’s magnetic fields are constantly in flux — but rarely so much so that runway signage needs to be changed. “You want to be absolutely precise in your compass heading,” he told Fox. “To make sure the precision is there that we need, you have to make these changes.”
“The Earth’s poles are changing constantly, and when they change more than three degrees, that can affect runway numbering,” FAA spokesperson Kathleen Bergen told Fox News. It’s unclear whether any other airports will have to adjust their runways.
Earth’s magnetic field, which still flummoxes those who study it, “is thought to be generated deep inside the planet,” LiveScience writer Jeanna Bryner explains. “An inner core of solid iron is surrounded by an outer core of molten iron. They rotate at different rates, and the interaction between the regions creates what scientists call a ‘hydromagnetic dynamo.’ It’s something like an electric motor, and it generates a magnetic field akin to a giant bar magnet.”
Sometimes, the poles completely flip — and presumably when that happens, many bigger changes are afoot than modest tweaks to airport signs. The last time the planet experienced a polarity flip was 780,000 years ago.
Im an s-corp and need to show that someone is being paid wages so im payin myself. ?
Not making much of a profit yet so what do I do? Cut myself a check every month and at the end of the year add it to my personal taxes? If so how do I do that on the corporation side? What forms do I need to fill out each north or quarter or records to keep? I have no idea!!
And before you do get into some big trouble and create some problems for your self you really should seek some face to face professional assistance with this S-Corp business and the necessary tax reporting and forms that you will have to correctly complete fill out and file for this purpose.
Use the search box at the www.irs.gov website to start with your learning process and type S Corporations
S corporations are corporations that elect to pass corporate income, losses, deductions and credit through to their shareholders for federal tax purposes.
Shareholders of S corporations report the flow-through of income and losses on their personal tax returns and are assessed tax at their individual income tax rates. This allows S corporations to avoid double taxation on the corporate income. S corporations are responsible for tax on certain built-in gains and passive income.
To qualify for S corporation status, the corporation must meet the following requirements:
In order to become an S corporation, the corporation must submit Form 2553 Election by a Small Business Corporation (PDF) signed by all the shareholders.
Chart 1 – S Corporation
Hope that you find the above enclosed information useful. 07/27/2011
What does an industrial engineer do?
Apply statistical methods and perform mathematical calculations to determine manufacturing processes, staff requirements, and production standards.
Coordinate quality control objectives and activities to resolve production problems, maximize product reliability, and minimize cost.
Confer with vendors, staff, and management personnel regarding purchases, procedures, product specifications, manufacturing capabilities, and project status.
Draft and design layout of equipment, materials, and workspace to illustrate maximum efficiency, using drafting tools and computer.
Review production schedules, engineering specifications, orders, and related information to obtain knowledge of manufacturing methods, procedures, and activities.
Communicate with management and user personnel to develop production and design standards.
Estimate production cost and effect of product design changes for management review, action, and control.
Formulate sampling procedures and designs and develop forms and instructions for recording, evaluating, and reporting quality and reliability data.
Record or oversee recording of information to ensure currency of engineering drawings and documentation of production problems.
Study operations sequence, material flow, functional statements, organization charts, and project information to determine worker functions and responsibilities.
Direct workers engaged in product measurement, inspection, and testing activities to ensure quality control and reliability.
Implement methods and procedures for disposition of discrepant material and defective or damaged parts, and assess cost and responsibility.
Evaluate precision and accuracy of production and testing equipment and engineering drawings to formulate corrective action plan.
Analyze statistical data and product specifications to determine standards and establish quality and reliability objectives of finished product.
Develop manufacturing methods, labor utilization standards, and cost analysis systems to promote efficient staff and facility utilization.
Recommend methods for improving utilization of personnel, material, and utilities.
Plan and establish sequence of operations to fabricate and assemble parts or products and to promote efficient utilization.
Complete production reports, purchase orders, and material, tool, and equipment lists.
Schedule deliveries based on production forecasts, material substitutions, storage and handling facilities, and maintenance requirements.
Regulate and alter workflow schedules according to established manufacturing sequences and lead times to expedite production operations.
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